Physics defines force as an effect of mass. Since we know that some objects lack mass, the best definition of force is an object's effect on real objects. These real objects are well observed in the macro-world, as are their effects. Forces that exit objects are well recognized at macro-world vortexes. Thus, the fundamental particles creating a dynamic object produce the fundamental force therein. Now vortexes in the String World produce a force. We observe the attractive effect among electrons, such that when one rotates clockwise and the other counterclockwise, they prefer to do so side by side. In the String World, the directions of rotation between nearby objects creates a force between them. There is also some force effect between vortexes and circles, which turn to face each other in cross directions. This is the third fundamental force. All these forces work on the local level, and thus are, in fact, fundamental local forces of nature.
A moving string is a real object having momentum, just as the moving objects of our macro-world are real objects with momentum. Having local momentum allows the strings to create different dynamic shapes, which may manifest their existence onto others with various force effects. These are forces that should occur in macro-world as well.
The quantum physics of fields starts with local forces. In the way of evolution, you must have first a field, which exists everywhere. Then someone owning energy must come and give some of that energy to field. To provide energy is to work, which is a force acting across a distance. Hence, you need a force field first, or "supernatural actor." As a local force acts on a spot on the field, that part of the field jumps to a higher energy state. This local state is what they interpret as a particle; that is, the point in the field where you applied force will look like a particle. The quantum physics of fields has one field for each type of particle. Hence, the primary field must be destroyed to create more fields, and thus, many components have arisen from one field. The firstborn is a Higgs field and its particle is a Higgs boson, then an electric field with its electron, then an electromagnetic field with its photon. However, theorists say nothing about the magnetic field that exists around a permanent magnet, if only to hide the fact that they have not defined its representative particle. In any case, there are zoos of fields existing everywhere, apparently, as the next are quark fields with their many branches, then fields for gluons, W- and Z-bosons, etc. Then forces are effects of objects, and thus particles, and therefore the assumption is that all forces of nature arise from fields.
Then, what about the Big Bang theory where the universe expanded from a very high density and high temperature state. Do they propose the forming fields at first from that 'singularity'?
Now, to measure linear momentum, we need to know the object and its speed. When we see a moving object approaching another object, we must realize those objects may affect each other. Look at the effects between cars in traffic. When a moving car hits a car driving in front of it, it influences both cars. The quicker car forces the slower to speed up during the collision period. As a result, the quicker loses some speed because the slower gains it. However, the two cars can also join; the car in front accelerates, dragging the car along behind it. In this case, the front car loses some speed due to dragging the rear car, while the dragged car gains speed.
These examples represent fundamental linear-momentum forces in the macro-world; therefore, they should also exist in the String World in relation to far-traveling strings. Recall that strings travel at c, the speed of light. Since each string has its own inner dynamics, those dynamics and straight propagation combine to result in wave-like traveling patterns. And since two kinds of propagating waves exist, the universe has two fundamental far-reaching forces caused by strings.
This kind of string should appear when a particle assembled from such strings loses one of its component. Strings traveling in a longitudinal manner are strings ejected from baryons. These strings are responsible for the mass of baryons. Hence, all mass objects lose some strings with a longitudinal wave pattern. In keeping with the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the emission of these strings is constant and occurs in all directions. These strings are gravitons. Hence, gravitons are strings propagating at light speed with inner dynamic movement in line with their trajectories.
The "sideways" interaction of gravitons should occur when they encounter the same kind of strings that are still trapped in baryonic matter. Such an interaction could be imagined as that which occurs when a vibrating spring catches on the coils of other springs. The first impression is that the graviton would pull the string inside the particle, and so gravitons should speed up mass objects. The object interacting with the graviton would be pushed away from the object that emitted the graviton. However, the reality is different; in fact, gravitons attract objects to their previous home object. Hence, according to the Law of Action and Reaction, strings trapped inside mass objects must attract gravitons. From this, we should assign them a higher speed than the speed of gravitons, at least briefly. If we don't, then our suggestion should be that the inner dynamic of strings inside the mass particles somehow adds speed to the gravitons.
But nature teaches us that there is a speed higher than c, when we look closer at each point of the moving string. While the string is propagating through space at c, it still has an inner vibration, like a spring. When adding these movements together, we may observe that some of its points sometimes have a higher speed than c. Perhaps the fact that the strings are trapped gives them a higher speed. When we increase the pressure on the surface of a container, the substances inside move faster and more energetically; for example, such pressure increases the speed of particles in a gas.
According to the Law of Conservation of Energy, the added presure should increase both speed and temperature. Hence for the quantum level, a longitudinal string being under a higher pressure (because is jailed) has also a higher inner dynamics--higher fequency. If longitudinal strings in their inner dynamic shape have a higher frequency then, those entering baryons when passing them side-by-side may be slightly pulled--gravitons are pulled by baryon's strings.
In any case, the physical observation of a mass object in the presence of gravitons results in the conclusion that gravitons speed up during their interaction with components of mass objects. The physical reality from this observation determines the universal Law of Gravitation. This cannot be uprooted by Einstein's theory of gravitation, because evidence does exist for quantum gravity. For instance, physicists have observed quantized states of matter under the influence of gravity. Valery Nesvizhevsky of the Laue-Langevin Institute and colleagues have found that cold neutrons moving in a gravitational field do not move smoothly, but jump from one state to another. This observation dismisses at all the theory of gravitation based on changes in space structures because space structuries (if can be changed) must run smoothly, they do not jump. If quanta of gravity relate to the graviton particle, then gravitons must be interacting with the neutrons.
Transverse waves are more effective at interfering with other waves and objects than longitudinal waves, due to the greater area they occupy while traveling. They may even stop when absorbed into objects. These strings are photons; their force effect comes from their linear momentum. Photons are emitted mostly from the surfaces of objects when surface changes occur; for example, during heating. Thus, photons are primarily emitted by the electrons in the atoms and molecules or ordinary matter.
Photons interact with electrons. We know that when an electron absorbs a photon, it jumps to a new energy level or even out of the atom. We can see this momentum in the photovoltaic solar energy converter via Einstein's photoelectric effect and in an X--ray generator or in a CT scanner via the Compton effect, and so on. Endless proofs of the existence of this force exist in nature, so it would behoove theoretical physicists addicted to mathematical models and computer simulations to stop denying the existence of this force. Instead, they need include it among the fundamental forces in physics. When they observe the repulsion of celestial bodies from each other, i.e. the continued expansion of the universe, they claim to have no mathematical formulas to explain it, nor computer models for it; and no Feynman diagram can picture such a thing happening. Thus, they ask for more money to resolve this mystery, to which they've assigned the name "dark energy." Wouldn't it be better for science to accept the photon's , instead of continuing to spread this dark energy nonsense, claiming the force does not have its own carrier and does not even exist among the fundamental forces of nature?
This force can be realized only in substances having atoms and molecules arranged so that those electrons create loop circuits among them. Mostly, carbon atoms are used to create such structures; so it barely applies to stars, especially new stars, since no carbon has been created in them yet. This force should apply, however, to celestial bodies that are remnants of stars, especially the remnants of big stars. This force takes away (separates) the newly created matter (the inductive matter) from the "ashes" in the cores of stars, so this useful matter will not be destroyed or lost in black holes. Thanks to neutrinos, celestial objects with chemicals and elements useful for existence of life are in the Universe; and so, thanks to neutrinos life could start on the Earth. However, neutrinos do not have a force effect on red giants, white dwarfs, or light cosmic dust.
This force should be included among our quantum puzzle pieces, in order to obtain a solution that tells us where the additional attractive force registered in the Universe is hidden, and thus to solve the physical mystery called "dark matter."
The Standard Model of Forces recognizes four fundamental forces. They are: the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, the electromagnetic force, and gravity. Initially, the SM recognized that the carrier of electromagnetic force is the photon. In fact, it is good to assign the photon as the carrier of this force, since "quantum physics" means "physics for quanta"--and the existence of quanta were determined in relation to identifying the photon. However, later theorists decided that the electron was the source of the magnetic force. This claim removed this force from the fundamental quantum forces, and thus did the same to the entirety of the electromagnetic force, since the electron is an identical particle of the electric field too. Then again, "electromagnetic" is a compound word, and should mean "electric and magnetic." If two words are combined, then their meanings should be closely related; and thus, when one force uses a specific quantum particle as its carrier, the other should also use that quantum particle as its carrier.
The concept of quanta was discovered when light interacted with electrons. It was discovered that the electron accepts energy coming from radiation via particles, and therefore the carrier of this force was named the photon, thus defined as the object (particle) carrying one quantum of energy--the smallest possible packet of energy. To have one source of the electromagnetic force be a quantum particle (the photon) and the other a subatomic particle (the electron, for magnetism) leads to doubt as to whether we are really doing quantum physics at all, or trying to remain in classical physics, where we have electrons, protons, and neutrons as particles of ordinary matter.
Some theorists try to explain the electromagnetic force as arising by exchanging photons, such that a photon would dance between charged particles. Thus, when two electrons approach each other, they exchange a photon, and then move away from each other. But although they move away from each other, they do not follow physical laws, like Newton's Third Law. Exchanging photons without any momentum definitive leaves the realm of physics and enters that of conceptive imagination. Namely, when one charge is positive and the second negative, then the photons dancing between them cannot cause both attraction and then repulsion. This physical impossibility is "quantified" in something called Quantum Electrodynamics.
Quantum electrodynamics is a conspiracy theory intended to uproot the physical essence of the nature and to substitute it by math abstractions. Now, quantum electrodynamics uproots the force I've called the Photon's Force, since SM does not cite it. The Compton force, as well Einstein's photoelectric force, are collision forces. Thus, on the scene we have linear momentum of photons, which does work. In the photoelectric force, there is a great simplicity, because the linear momentum of the photon just kicks out the electron. It is far reaching force because photons come mostly from the sun. The Compton force has an added effect, freeing a part of energy in a form of a new photon. Now, this knowledge has led to the conspiracy theory. According to the conspiracy theorists, it is not known how these things happen, because there are just probabilities of these things happening; therefore it is the essence of math (not physics) of this happening. From such a math comes the Feynman view of quantum electrodynamics. His entries are the moving electron, going from one place and time to another place and time, and similarly the photon. Then the collision occurred and new products come to exist. But when is "hocus pocus" based on probability, and here is the end of the physics involved. PROBABILITY IS NOT ANY PHYSICAL LAW. Probability is an uncertainty principle (when I may win physically bingo or Lotto as it travels mathematically from one player and time to others), a mathematical tool to calculate products of a theorem of physics to have resulting quantities of certain possibilities. For instance, to have mathematically one electron existing everywhere on surface of an atom does not mean that the electron is not a physical particle - the electron is just a standing wave around a nucleus. Or, a probability is whether the electron will be noticed as a particle or a wave.
Or, probability in chemistry plays a big role also to determine a possibility to compose specific substances from some chemical reactions when from one reactants come out few chemical products. Yet, there does not exist any chemist proclaiming the probability is the chemistry's theorem. Likewise in sport, there exist some probability to score and still nobody proclaims the probability is a sport or sport term, and so on.
Feynman injected uncertainty into physics. He and his colleagues substituted the certain physical scheme of interaction with the Feynman diagram of statistic possibilities, and today it is the mathematical science behind the photon's force from the photon's momentum that is named quantum electrodynamics. Hence, there is practically no use of the term "linear momentum of photons" or kinetics energy regarding them doing work during the collision of photons with electrons, there is just energy. As the electron and the photon would not have the concrete existence--the various kinds of energy (kinetics, electric), or linear/rotational and spin momenta, so have only abstract energies.
Some physicists go a step further and claim that when an outer electron jumps to a lower orbit, it leaves behind a hole. Therefore, the next-kicked-out inner electron can jump into that spot. The result is that electrons switch their positions, resulting in freeing the new photon. According to Feynman, besides the photon, they also have two electrons going from one place and time to another, which in some probabilities interfere in a new photon. The having a photon without its momentum inspired some theoreticians to explain the nuclear force using a new kind of an exchange particle called the gluon. To implant strong electrodynamics, they needed the new effect to be many times stronger, which they call a "color force" at the gluon. This is the basis of quantum chromodynamics.
Quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics are conspiracies created in the realm of math to destroy physics -- to destroy sense of nature -- the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The theorists took the physical theories the photoelectric effect, and of creating quanta when electrons move from one orbit to another, and put them in math pots where they added invented ingredients lake gluons and W- and Z-bosons, and mixed them using the tools of probability and color alike. Then they took this chaos of nature they cooked up and presented them as quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics to attempt to feed our knowledge for why we may exist in this world (- for uncertainty). Thanks very much for your invention, but I do not like it because it has lost the aroma of nature in favor of the stink of complicated math and strange philosophy. Sadly, I cannot eat these concepts, because I need computer, even clusters of computers, to chew these dishes.
Theoretically, their Strong nuclear force uses a gluon as the particle of exchange. These theorists have dropped the term "photon" for this quantum of energy, renaming it a "gluon" because it "glues" nuclear particles together. However, both particles are the same, since they lack rest mass and must therefore move at the speed of light in a vacuum. According to this theory, the particles in the nucleus are charged particles comprised of up and down quarks. However, nature restricts the close existence of different charges to distances greater than the diameter of baryons (it should be the diameter of an atom). Therefore, it is physical nonsense to claim that positive and negative charges can exist freely in nuclei. The existence of free-moving charges in baryons leads them to use the same model as photons for electrons. Thus, gluons are their exchanged particles. However, they invert quantum electrodynamics by jumping to "colors" borne by photons--red, green, and blue. Now there needs to be a force to keep the state of the baryon color-neutral. Since a combination of red, blue, and green produces white light, we get another property of the baryon--to be colored white. A similar theory is used for the weak nuclear force. There, they use W+, W-, and Z-bosons as exchange particles.
Some theorists also propose two theories of gravity. The first purports a quantum in their String Theory, while the other is Einstein's theory of distorted space, as presented in the General Theory of Relativity. It seems to me that Einstein's theory prevails today, although there is no compelling evidence for it. Einstein's gravitation force does not express any relation between particles. The reason for it is merely the presence of the object in space. This force does not follow any Newtonian laws regarding relationships between objects, any more than alchemists needed chemical relationships among elements to create their new chemicals.
Space is practically dual: it can be curved to form gravity, and when is flattened it is inertia. As mathematicians have mathematical formulas for geometric shapes, they also have their mathematical formulas called (geo)metric tensors for spacetime. Hence, propagators of Einstein's gravity should be honored by these mathematicians, because they have created extended geometrical shapes for a new type of radiating force. Or, on other hand, mathematicians should protest against presenting geometry as a physical force, because it can make geometry into just another branch of physics. In general, Einstein's theory of gravitation is the conspiracy theory to uproot the endless evidences of this force related to atomic mass of chemicals--Newton's law of universal gravitation. For example, science found gravity anomalies on the earth by help of satellites ("grace twin satellites" monitoring the overall gravity of the earth) placed 300 miles up into space, and so on.