[a picture of a free standing string]

Free Strings Without Linear Momentum

I have described subatomic strings as components of elementary particles (neutrons, protons, electrons, and neutrinos), and also as free strings with linear momentum (photons and gravitons. Now we need also to look at free strings without linear momentum.

A free string is not bound to any fixed point or firm area (e.g., the surface of a subatomic particle) and therefore may have various spatial shapes. The basic string form should be derived from an elastic line that spins along its long axis. This creates a dynamic object evolved from the spinning elastic line when fixed in its middle. A musical instrument having an open end, as for the example the flute or even some organ pipes, creates the first harmonic of a standing wave pattern. This fundamental frequency has antinodes at the two open ends and a single node (a point of non-displacement) in the middle between them. A three-dimensional view of this string gives a static picture like an hourglass, and dynamically like a spinning hourglass.

This basic string configuration can change when other nearby strings affect it, such that one end of the tube closes. The result is a wave pattern with the node at the closed end of the tube, and the antinode at the open end. Now the string looks like the string vortex already described for electric effects in the String World. The next spatial form for the string could be the looped string. These forms come into being when string vortexes attract their own free stems. These strings produce magnetic effects in the String World.

Hence, free strings having no linear momentum can exist in four dynamic shapes. The most basic is the straight-line shape, the second the spinning "hourglass," the third the vortex, and the last a rotating loop. I am going to disregard the straight-line strings, since their spin and vibration do not yield any essential force effects. They may not even exist in nature, since many natural disturbances can influence a string's shape. If this is true, then the basic shape of free strings is the spinning "hourglass."

When this basic form comes into contact with a subatomic particle carrying the electric force, the strings on the surface of the particle impact our free string so that its node changes position. If it's facing a vortex, the node moves to the vortex; and so, our string changes its form from the spinning hourglass to the string vortex. This free string has an electric force effect; and therefore, it can affect another string in space, causing it to adjust itself to the new conditions in its surroundings. This is how the second vortex shape is formed, and it should influence others, and so on. In this manner, a chain is created where vortexes generate free strings to be directed so that their vortex stems enter vortex cones. Stems already pulled into cones do not move the string substantially, because on the other side is the same force, pulling its cone to the next string stem. The end of this chain ends with a vortex cone, which attracts vortex stems.

Thus, our chain end would wave around, trying to find a new vortex stem. Its attraction is satisfied when it encounters a stem of another string. Stems already exist on the surface of objects having a positive charge and on the free ends of other chains, which meanwhile have been created from the positively charged object. Both possibilities lead to the closing of the chain, so there would be a chain between negative and positive charges. Multiple lines should connect these opposite charges; the greater the charge, the more lines form. Inside our chains are forces acting so that the distance between cones and stems would decrease; thus, they are transferred to charged objects. These chains attract charged objects, as expressed by Coulomb's Law for a force between two charges. If the two charges are the same, string chains are still created, but they cannot be closed, since the end of a charged chain is repelled by the ends of chains with the same charge.

All the above refers to lines of electric force, yet magnetic field lines also exist between magnetic poles. These lines create free strings, which adjust themselves to the surfaces of said magnetic poles. Since magnetism is a force effect of rotation, then our string consists of rotating looped couplets with opposing magnetic fields. In a sense, they create string "bar magnets" when they join. These are connected to generate the magnetic force effect in the surrounding space.

Free strings without linear momentum are universal particles that carry the force effect of either a magnetic pole or an electric charge. Increasing the distance between strings weakens the force; shortening the distances increases the force. A high number of "closed" lines means a greater magnetic or electrical charge. These proportions express formulas for fields.

The existence of free strings in space has a firm basis in the observation of magnetic field lines. Everyone has seen them during classroom experiments, when a teacher places iron filings on a piece of paper in a magnetic field. The iron filings line up along the magnetic field lines as they are temporarily magnetized. Each filing becomes a little magnet, one end of which is attracted to the end of another filing. The filings make the field lines visible.

According to theorists, the interactions between poles or charges are mediated by the constant exchange of photons from one object to another; that is, the field itself is made of photons. But this contradicts physical observation. Photons move from emitters to absorbers. But this would not be made visible by iron filings if it were true. There isn't even a higher density of iron filings on lines closest to the poles. Theorists suggest the direction is outward from the north pole and inward to the south pole of the magnet, so more filings should collect at south pole than at north pole. But this is not the case, as can be easily observed with the naked eye.

If photons comprised the lines of a magnetic and electric field, then there should be no gaps without filings in them. Photons cannot bend in their paths without refraction, which occurs when they pass from an optically dense medium into a less optically dense medium. Although lovers of fantasy physics claim that light passing the Sun bends due to the Sun's gravity, thus proving gravitational lensing, the truth is that the light is passing from an interplanetary vacuum into the optically denser medium--the Sun's corona--and again into the interplanetary vacuum. Neither physical lensing nor the unproven gravitational lensing should generate a big enough curve to form a closed magnetic field in bar macro-magnet, or a bar micro-magnet, and even a bar nano-magnet.

If photons represent magnetic and electric field lines and we know that the magnetic north pole attracts the magnetic south pole and also the plus charge attracts the minus charge, then photons should cause these attractions. However, the reality is that photons have linear momentum and therefore cause pushing, not attraction.

If photons carry the electromagnetic effect, then in accordance with their claim, the bar magnet should have an electromagnetic field. But the reality of the bar magnet is just magnetic field lines. Or, if we accept their claim that photons create all field lines, then we must accept that there is no difference between magnetic and electric fields, between magnetic and electric forces, and from it, when electric motors run, we're experiencing not everyday reality, but human illusion.

Can we believe the other physical declarations of these theorists to be true, when we have so firmly confirmed the existence of standing quanta in electric and magnetic fields? Since these quanta, and thus our free strings, are not moving at any significant speed between poles or charges, then in relation to quanta of fields, the electric and magnetic fields are static fields; there are moving just force effects of poles or charges when free strings change their shape to adjust themselves to them. This adjusting is a process and therefore there is some dynamic effect of a force, as a force would be moving through space per time; we say, the impulse travels -- there is the momentum. However, objects of quanta in the surrounding of charges undergo just interior transformation within the scope of their inner "life" -- their internal dynamics to adjust themselves to inner and outer needs. Physics must deal with this elasticity, as we notice transportation of momentum on swinging balls hung in a straight line in contact with each other. When an impulse is applied on the first ball, we do not register it until it reaches the last ball on the line, and so is with strings in fields. As balls inside of the line do not move, so neither a string moves in the field. Hence, the transformation of the momentum runs just through mathematical calculations of transformation, still there is not any physical transformation -- photons are not produced -- electromagnetic radiation does not exist. Hence, we may have mathematical relations between charges and fields, but there are not any formulas (Larmor) to calculate produced radiation.

Continue to "The Physical Model of Particles"

or to read about Relativity vs. Reality from the book go there.

Go to Home Page