A string is an object of the material world. This means a string has a real material body, which can be reduced to parts. The smallest part is a point; these points are connected into a line to create the string. One-dimensionally, they create a straight line, which is limited. (If bent, of course, they become two-dimensional.) A segment of the line is a geometrical object called an abscissa. A string's points do not have fixed positions in this abscissa; that is, they can approach and move away from each other. Therefore, the string does not have a firm, set length. The length varies, making it an elastic object.
The process of stretching (lengthening) and contracting (shortening) during a particular period is called vibration. This is the primary intrinsic property of a string. An inherent force works against lengthening the string, bringing a stretched string back to its original length. Physicists have studied this motion, mostly on springs--where a stretched distance is limited by the force of the spring--and have found that F = -kx, where F is the force within the string that opposes stretching through distance x. The k stands for the stiffness of the spring. Since vibration is periodic motion, then there is some frequency to the stretching and contraction; and so, we can calculate the relationship for the string's displacement in time.
This relationship is derived from the circular motion of a point. If an object moves with angular rate of rotation omega on a circle of radius r centered at the origin of the x-y plane, then its motion along each coordinate is a simple harmonic motion with amplitude r and angular frequency. The one-dimensional projection of the uniform circular motion provides the simple harmonic motion. The displacement x in time is r times sine (omega x time). Thus, the equation x = xmaxsine (omega x time) describes the simplest vibrational movement on a line where displacements change periodically in accordance with the sine function.
In String Theory, the energy of movement is called the elastic energy of a string, in comparison with the elastic energy of a spring. When any displacement occurs, the potential elastic energy transforms into kinetic energy. Thus, the maximal potential energy at the maximal displacement is the same as the maximal kinetic energy at equilibrium.
The Standard Model of Particles and Forces arose from String Theory built on the above-mentioned mathematic formulae, which are further developed by using other mathematic tools. Thus, their source is just an effect of strings. They are described in a way that someone might describe the fact that a bow provides energy to shoot arrows, but without mentioning that the reason for this is that the bowstring is stretched between two firm points and then pulled to bend the bow to shoot the arrow. Since a bow-seller needs to have numbers to sell his bows, he uses mathematics to give provide those numbers; he might say that a bow requires 30 kilograms (or 64 pounds) of force (294 N) to bend. Similarly, theorists come along and use the physical relation for the stiffness of a string and a force that bends the string like a guitar string. The power of the bow is expressed as the amount of work done to draw the string.
To achieve this, the mathematician must know the stiffness and the deviation of the bowstring. He is not interested in describing the physical string itself; if he were, he would be a physicist. Focusing on the math for strings yields the impression that the string does not exist in the weapon called a bow. Namely, the mathematical view of strings does not require an explicit material since any object is already considered to be the universal factor in mathematics. Such mathematical attitudes have slipped into modern physics, and today theoretical physicists often build their carriers on this singularity. That is why they claim that the basic string in String Theory is just a quantum of energy, and that is all. This means that the string--physical object--does not really exist in their theory of particles and forces.
When we bend a string that has both ends fixed, we use a force to create a deviation. In this way, the string acquires potential energy that may be calculated as an area through which the string has been drawn. This area retains the potential energy of the string as long as it remains drawn. This potential energy is changed into kinetic energy when the string is loosed; in a bow, this energy is used to propel an arrow. Mathematics defines this area as an integral of force times deviation. That is why mathematical physicists visualize an area when they want to visualize any string. This is clear from their imaging of strings as areas in space--as elementary clouds existing in the String World.
The elastic longitudinal string moves one-dimensionally only; therefore, to visualize its energy as an area is impossible. Perhaps this factor contributes to the omission of longitudinal strings from their String Theory of particles and forces. Consider waves: these theorists work only with propagating transverse waves, as supposedly propagating longitudinal waves cannot exist in nature. For them, the elementary particle bearing the wave function is just transverse waves assigned to the photon. But omitting or neglecting the existence of a particle having the properties of longitudinal waves makes any theory of particles and forces unworthy of being treated as a real scientific theory.
Linear objects like strings can rotate one-dimensionally, so that each point of this object has zero distance to its axis of rotation; therefore, there is no angular momentum involved. It follows that the simplest form of string in the String World is the longitudinal string, having points vibrating in relation to the center of the string. They may even have spin; but this rotation does not influence the expansion and contraction of the string. Hence, the basic string of nature is the string that is observed to just vibrate back and forth, as a spring in the macro-world does. Therefore, we should assign this type of string, the longitudinal string, as the fundamental building block of the universe from which all particles and forces arise. Only after it has been thoroughly examined should theoretical physicists derive other forms of strings, and study how they travel and interact/interfere with each other.
Since we live in the real world, a traveling object does not lose its identity while traveling; the only thing added to it is speed. Thus, strings should not lose their identities when they are displaced. Physics tells us that an object gains a new physical property called momentum when it acquires speed. Momentum designates the REALITY of moving objects. If an object moves in a straight-line trajectory, it has linear momentum. Vibration continues as the string moves through space. Therefore, some points of the longitudinal string sometimes acquire a speed greater than c, since the velocity of a point of the string is added to the string's traveling velocity of c. But we should be more precise in our physical view, and say that the vibrating string travels as a part of a propagating longitudinal wave rather than that it is a propagating longitudinal wave. Thus, our string travels as a longitudinal wave pattern. Having momentum results in a force effect during interactions with other objects, mainly during collisions. Since the contact area between colliding objects is limited to point size, this particle could not create a colliding pressure with other objects significant enough to move or to damage them. Yet, this particle could still interact with others, mostly those having the same properties, through resonance.
During a close approach, particles may influence each other due to the moving points in both strings, as they vibrate in the same manner. Resonance between traveling springs moving side-by-side works, and that is why longitudinal strings traveling side-by-side should interfere/interact as well. Hence, a traveling string can be accelerated or slowed by a nearby string only during their resonance interaction. Still, the final effect of such an interaction is very small, and therefore the particle should be responsible only for a very small force observed in nature.
At one time, these fundamental strings were not packed very densely. We know this from observation of the universe, where the universe's matter first has the density of atoms, then the density of subatomic particles (the baryon density), an even denser form of matter. The density we observe and deal with first in the material world is atomic density, since atoms comprise all seeable objects in our world. Inside atoms, there is a relatively large amount of free space between the atomic nuclei and atomic surfaces, e.g. the outer electron cloud. The diameter of an atom is approximately 10-11 m, while the diameter of an atomic nucleus is about 10-15 m.
The universe does contain objects called neutron stars with a density similar to the density of neutrons. In these objects, almost all the space between the atomic surfaces and the nuclei has been eliminated. I will use the term "baryon density" for the density found in neutrons and the protons. Matter with baryon density is mostly found in remnants of giant stars where the pressure during collapse was so high that it did not leave electrons free to orbit their atomic nuclei. Here on Earth, we do not have such extremely dense objects. We do not use the term "baryon objects" for matter having baryon density; we just call them baryons. These include free neutrons, free protons, and their fragments, composites, and so on. However, it is possible to create a larger object with baryon density in a collider, at least for a very, very brief period. This is achieved by arranging head-on collisions of nuclei of gold and lead, or of hydrogen and hydrogen, yielding a plasma with baryon density.
Lastly, the universe has a third form of matter with an enormous density created by collapsing neutrons. This matter exists only in the remnants of supergiant stars where the pressure is so high that when the star dies, neutrons collapse to their smallest possible volumes. Astronomers call these objects black holes.
Today, experimental science is making great progress. We have arrived at the point where we can create the densest forms of matter in the universe. This is possible only for a very short time, since creating stable black-hole matter requires extreme pressure exerted on its surface consistently for long time. To create it using any earthly equipment is impossible, because our devices and tools are made from atomic matter. The maximal pressure on Earth never goes beyond the pressure needed to maintain atomic matter; with earthly matter, we cannot achieve the constant pressure that causes electrons to be pushed into atomic nuclei. If any devices existed that could achieve this, they would destroy themselves.
It is possible to produce this extreme pressure during collisions. But collisions are, by their nature, short term; they happen and are done. The collision pressure, like that we observe in auto accidents, lasts only as long as the collision itself. Such a pressure may cause great damage, especially when the objects are moving at high speed; that's one reason we have speed limits on our roads.
To be successful, our experiments must run at a high speed. If we want to smash a moving object into a stable barrier, then its speed must reach the speed of light. We know this from observing the speed of objects on the surfaces of neutron stars. The surface objects on neutron stars move at a speed that closely approaches the speed of light. Objects moving at the speed of light and crashing into a solid barrier should be so thoroughly demolished that their volume decreases almost to the density of the neutrons, but only for the period of the collision.
We can observe crashes that have a greater impact on the objects involved when moving objects meet head-on at high velocities. Scientists have already conducted such experiments with baryonic matter. They accelerated two streams of protons to almost the speed of light, then brought the two streams into collision with each other. The observed results were far greater than any collision of objects naturally observed on the Earth. They first measured sparkles of light: photons. But a "smash product" having a density even higher than the density of the protons should also have been registered, since the collision achieved a practical effect of twice the speed intrinsic for neutron stars. Just as in some traffic accidents there exists a collision product of cars that has a lesser volume than the cars had, the same should happen with the protons. Furthermore, if massive numbers of cars crashed, then there could exist a collision product consisting of multiple cars melded by the collision.
Scientists at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have found just such a particle, which had never before been observed. They claim this particle has a higher density than other particles of matter naturally existing on Earth, making it denser than the proton. Later, there was a rumor that they had found a particle five times heavier than the one proposed as the Higgs boson. This smashed matter did not continue to exist after that collision, however, as we would see with smashed cars; after the collision pressure was gone, the particle decayed into regular particles. Therefore, the proclaimed Higgs boson existed only during the collision time, 1.56x10-22 seconds; its lifetime was the time it took for light to travel through the diameter of an atomic nucleus.
This means that the particle could never be stabled in the real world, and therefore, this particle cannot play any stable role in nature. Nor could it enter our world from other worlds, as some fantasize. This particle is an artificial product created from smashed protons at LHC, and is a scientific reality. If someone were to claim that this particle exists outside our material world to influence matter in our material world (e.g., protons and so on), then they would be partly right. The scientific truth is that no one should claim this particle, whether it may be, as part of our real world, since the conditions used to create it are not those of our world--at least, not in any stable sense. Scientists placing this particle into our world, and giving it this function or that, are thieves. This particle is part of the black-hole world, or at least of the extreme neutron-star world.
Now, if the universe contains matter having a higher density than protons and neutrons, that means that protons can be compressed into smaller volumes. In other words, baryons contain plenty of free space that can be removed, as was accomplished in the LHC experiment described above. If baryons themselves are mostly empty space, just like atoms, then the particles making up baryons must have some freedom of movement inside their volume.
Applying the Second Law of Thermodynamics to baryons, some strings located inside baryons must occasionally leave them. Therefore, baryons must be the sources of the free longitudinal strings traveling through space. This should apply to any object or material consisting of baryons. Thus, we may quantitatively classify objects according to their emission of longitudinal strings into free space; that is, the size of an object is proportional to its intensity of emitting longitudinal strings. If these strings collide with other objects, the effects of such collisions relate to their producers. In nature, we observe forces between two objects; any such force would have its source in both objects. The source of this force is due to the production of longitudinal strings. We observe this in almost each object in the universe. It follows that the emission of longitudinal strings by baryons, and their interactions, generate gravity.
Longitudinal strings emitted by baryons move through the universe quite freely, since their colliding areas are reduced to dimensionless points. Thus, they may penetrate atomic matter easily. Then we have the longitudinal strings inside the volume of protons and the neutrons. Therefore, theoretical physicists must theorize about the possibilities of their interactions; that is, whether such interactions exist, and when they do, what are their physical effects in nature?
Clearly, the strings inside baryons move. However, they cannot be emitted in enormous numbers, since that would destroy the baryon; and scientists have proven that the lifetime of a proton is essentially the age of the Universe. Therefore, their movement must be restricted. What causes that restriction? Apparently, the baryon's surface. But why can't they pass through this barrier to exit the baryon? It's hard to specify for now what creates that surface, and how it was created, but it's logical to assume that just beneath a baryon's surface are some sort of "string catchers" that should have some barrier area. In any case, the fact is that baryons are covered by a dense structure that traps longitudinal strings inside their volume. If longitudinal strings strike this barrier, they bounce off. Theoretically, they may also hit other strings; thus, their movement would resemble the zigzag course of molecules in a volume of a gas.
What is the speed of the longitudinal string tapped inside baryons? First of all, it should not be smaller than c, since they are strings. The speed c is reserved for strings that are not obstructed by any medium or force. Thus, we should have the speed c for the strings inside the volume of the baryon. However, these strings are under pressure, due to being trapped in the volume of the baryon. When we examine the effect of pressure on speed in gaseous objects, we see that pressure increases the speed of those molecules in accordance with the Law of Conservation of Energy. From this, we may suggest that the longitudinal strings trapped in the baryon have a slightly higher speed than c.
Another mechanism that could produce this effect may be that the longitudinal strings in the baryons are bound or maintained by a force that causes their movement to be like that of oscillating objects connected to a spring. If the longitudinal strings move as if connected to springs and their average speed is c, then their instantaneous speed while traveling through an equilibrium point of vibration is higher than c. In any case, we should see a higher speed than c in a baryon's inner strings, because the baryons attract themselves in accord with Newton's law of universal gravitation.
Gravity is a mutual attraction between separate objects in nature. Since the distance between them can as wide as the diameter of the Universe, and both will still feel some level of mutual attraction, there must be a carrier of the attractive force found in these objects. We must apply the Law of Action and Reaction (Newton's Third Law) for each object that is affected by these carriers of the gravitational force. According to this law, when an object is pulled in the direction from whence the carriers of this force originated, then the carriers of the gravitational force must be pushed far along their propagating route. If they are pushed far farther than normal, they experience a higher speed during this interaction than normal. Therefore, the longitudinal strings inside baryons interact with these carriers of the gravitational force in such a way that they "give them a ride." According to the Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum, for an interacting couplet during this interaction, the longitudinal strings inside baryons lose their instantaneous speed in relation to the speed they would have without any such interaction. Since they are located inside the baryon, this should affect the whole baryon, so that the baryon is tugged in the direction from which the carriers of this force arrived. Such should be the physical theory of the gravitational effect on objects having longitudinal strings moving within their volumes.
Nonetheless, the gravitational force should be extremely weak during the physical effect of just passing by. Just as when a car overruns another car and they feel weak mutual influence that pushes or drags them on the route, so is with the longitudinal strings passing by one another.
Gravitons in the 5th Dimension. Some physicists try to explain weak gravitation through the existence of a particle called the graviton, the carrier of the gravitational force in a 5th dimension. According to them, gravity is strong in the 5th spatial dimension; but when it enters our dimensions, the graviton loses most of its previous force, which is why gravity is such a weak force.
Physical observation of gravity tells us that the gravitational force is proportional to the size of the objects being attracted by it. To stay within the framework of String Theory, however, we should discuss the number of longitudinal strings existing in the volumes of those objects. According to the Law of Universal Gravitation, the gravitational effect is proportional to the masses of objects. Hence, the mass of the object depends upon the number of longitudinal strings located in the object. Since we should expect more gravitational interactions where there are more longitudinal strings, the mass of the object must be proportional to the number of longitudinal strings packed within the object. However, the longitudinal strings must have some freedom of movement within the volume of the object affected by the gravitational force. Hence, mass is a physical property of the object in which the longitudinal strings have dynamic properties that allow said movement, and therefore mass is the physical unit expressing proportionally the dynamics of the longitudinal strings in the quantitative form. Since our material world is composed of the subatomic particles, mass is the physical property of the subatomic particles and their composites. i.e., atoms and molecules, that expresses their bigness well-observed in the gravitational field. Therefore, we measure the heaviness of an object in the gravitational field to know its bigness.
The longitudinal strings in this type of matter would exist under enormous surface pressure. This pressure would bring the strings so close to each other that they would have no freedom of movement in this form of matter. Therefore, it must have different physical properties than baryon matter. Non-moving black-hole longitudinal strings, having no speed, cannot give gravitons any "rides," if they penetrate super-dense black-hole matter; and therefore, gravitons do not attract black-hole matter toward their sources. Thus, a black hole remains at rest or in uniform motion, as long as there is no other external non-gravitational force affecting it. So, we may fully observe Newton's First Law at any black hole if there is only gravity acting on it. For example, astronomers have observed a black hole, B3 1715+425, moving through the universe at 2,000 miles per second, with no signs of stopping. They have also identified a supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy 3C186, flying away at 1,300 miles per second.
Thanks to this physical property of black holes, gravitation cannot collapse the universe back to the point of its birth, as was originally believed with the "Big Crunch" theory. Gravity does not affect black holes. Another aspect of gravity not affecting black holes is this: if gravity affected all celestial bodies proportionally to their massiveness, then the universe would today be just one galaxy.
Longitudinal strings, being under massive pressure in black holes, should leave the black hole quicker. Logically, then, black hole matter produces relatively more gravitons than baryonic matter. Physically, this means that the longitudinal strings break away at a greater rate than they do from baryonic matter. The enormous production of gravitons causes black holes to attract other spatial objects many times more effectively than any object composed of mere baryonic matter. Hence, to classify size of black holes according to the gravitational effects known for baryon matter is incorrect.
Astronomers have calculated enormously high levels of mass for black holes; for example, the black hole at the center of a galaxy about 73 million light years away is 660 million times the mass of our sun . They also claim a black hole in galaxy IRAS 20100-4156 has a mass of 17 billion suns. These numbers alone should suggest that black- hole matter must attract other objects differently than baryonic matter does. The right way to say this is that a black hole has the attractive force of 660 million suns or 17 billion suns; this does not mean the black hole actually has the mass (the bigness) of 660 million or 17 billion suns. Notice: Their numbers for the masses of black holes, and also their observation that they are small in volume in comparison to stars, means that astronomers also propose the third kind of matter having a higher density than baryons.
The fact that black-hole matter attracts objects more forcefully than baryonic matter, and the accompanying fact that baryonic matter does not attract black-hole matter, is the reason galaxies exist; in the center of each galaxy is an enormous black hole. Thanks to the physical effects of maximally packed matter, we may sort out the Universe by the arrangement of galaxies. Galaxies exist in the Universe in great abundance; there may be as many as 2 trillion.
Within this context, we occasionally hear about gravity waves created by the merging of two black holes. The physical fact is that the scientists making such claims detected local gravitational impulses--changes in intensity of the gravitational field. The changes occur quickly; hence the term "impulse." They've even been able to point to the places in the universe from whence the impulses came, because they were picked up by two detectors.
Our planet creates its own gravitational field around it; objects on or near its surface are attracted to the center of the Earth. In fact, the Earth creates so great a gravitational force that a firmly connected object, like an anchor for ocean vessels, is heavy enough to keep all but the most powerful waves from sweeping a ship away from the anchor. The intensity of gravitons at the surface of the Earth is very high, though it does decrease the further from the surface of the Earth an object is.
Because our Earth is a celestial body, gravitons from other celestial bodies influence our gravitational field. The closer they are, the greater the impact; though again, this depends on their mass. The Sun and the Moon influence our gravitational field the most, and we experience changes of gravitational force in impulses related to their position to us. These impulses relate to the Earth's rotation its axis, so they exhibit a 24-hour cycle. This is most easily observed in ocean tides. We notice the greatest gravitational changes in impulses of 24 hours (the daily cycle), 29 days (the lunar Month), and 365.25 days (the sidereal year).
We must take heed of changes in the gravitational field due to other changes in the universe, however. Since there are huge distances involved, we can only measure them using very precise machines. This was accomplished with the LIGO experiment, which detected one such brief impulse in September 2015. Now, we may theorize about what causes this sort of impulse. If we stay with gravity force, then in the context above, it could be caused by a transformation of baryonic mass into black-hole matter (e.g., the creation of a new black hole), as occurs when a large star collapses into a black hole after a supernova. It could also be caused by two spatial objects, such as neutron stars, merging. However, no one can effectively claim that this confirms Einstein's theory of General Relativity, based on physical effects of spatial geometry, because it is more logical to suppose that LIGO registered incoming beams of gravitons. This is a huge scientific success.
At almost the same time, from the same part of the universe, NASA detected a short gamma-ray burst--half a second after LIGO detected a burst of gravitons. Since it is very probable that both are related to a single event, then what happened was that the event ejected a flash of gravitons and a flash of gamma rays simultaneously. But they mostly ignore this because both were events did not take place at precisely the same time. Besides, light (including gamma rays) cannot escape from black holes, at least according to theory.
It was previously predicted that the merging of black holes would produce neutrinos, yet no burst of neutrinos was detected at that time. Therefore, the proclaimed merging of two black holes has no scientific relevance.
The event likeliest to cause the observed phenomena is the merging of two small neutron stars into a larger one. Such an event should emit gravitons and photons of the shortest wavelengths. So let's put them on the start line and start them off. Both gravitons and photons propagate on the same trajectory and at the speed c, and therefore should arrive at our detectors at the same time. If one overruns the other, then one set of particles had to interact with something else at some point along the route. It is very probable that the gravitons interacted many times, and the photons hardly ever. We already know gravitons gain speed when interacting with mass objects. Therefore, the result of such modeling is that gravitons overrun photons. And what was observed? Gravitons gained a speed of 0.4 seconds, so the burst of gravitons arrived early than the burst of gamma rays. Hence, LIGO attested to my theory of gravitation on September 14, 2015.
Other signal arrived on August 17, 2017 confirms more my theory of gravitation because the gravitons arrived ahead of the photons at a significant distance. The start line now is known, it is the collision of two neutron stars in a galaxy NGC 4993, which produced components of neutrons--gravitons mostly and photons partly--with the initial speed c. As the gravitons in accordance with Newton's law of universal gravitation did the attractive job pulling met objects backward to the collision spot and so were pushed ahead according to the Law of Action--Reaction, therefore LIGO first detected the impulse of the pushed gravitons. After that, two seconds later (1.7), the Fermi spacecraft registered a short burst of high--energy gamma radiation coming from the same celestial spot.
In any case, if researchers want to present this as waves propagating through space (Einsteinian gravitation), they must also register the spatial impulses of waves; for that, they need to have more detectors located in three-dimensional space, since Einstein's waves of space must be transverse waves. To accept their proclamation, we need a spatial picture of gravitational impulses and so to have their amplitude and wavelength to describe a state of existence of a wave.