[a picture of momenta of a photon]

Momenta of the Photon

Photons have two types of momenta. One is the angular momentum of its spin, as some points of the string lie at some distance from the axis of spin. This momentum has usually no force effect during propagation. When the photon impacts on subatomic particles, though, this momentum has an after-effect, because the string again forms a vortex. Therefore, photons are also the carrier of an electric quantum potential between distant objects. (Note: later, we'll also discuss a magnetic potential.)

Linear momentum is the physical reality, which determines that there is a physical object in motion; an object has speed. Thus, the linear momentum of the photon classifies the photon as a real particle of our physical world. We know that the linear momentum of the photon generates a fictive mass, which arises from calculation--thus from mathematics. Namely, the linear momentum of any moving object of atomic matter is its mass times its speed. Since the speed of photons is the constant c, its calculated mass is its momentum divided by c.

Any moving object has a force effect. This force effect is limited to the time during which the moving object acts on another--i.e., the collision time. Therefore, a force times a time (a force during collision time) is equal to linear momentum. Hence, when a photon lands somewhere, there must be a force effect applied. The direction of the force effect depends on the direction of the moving object and thus its vector speed (velocity). The assumption is that the photon has the intrinsic property to push against another object. This push is in the same direction as the photon was moving, which increases the speed of the object on which the photon landed. If the object on which the photon has landed already has some velocity, then the two velocities should be added together to determine the final effect.

Photons often strike electrons, and electrons are mostly found on the surfaces of atoms, orbiting their nuclei in orbital shells. The electrons have rotational velocity on a trajectory pictured as a circle; so when the photon lands on an electron, the force effect of its linear momentum splits into a circular velocity and into a straight velocity on the electron. This velocity adds additional momentum to the electron, which displaces the electron from one orbit to another orbit farther from the nucleus.

Initially, physicists noticed that the absorption of photons causes electrons to move into higher orbits. This indicates a higher level of energy. In physics, a force causing an object to move across a distance is defined as work; to do work requires energy. Therefore, the amount of momentum of the photon, which caused the electron to jump to a higher orbit and to speed up, is a quantum of kinetic energy for the photon. This physical observation of these quanta of energy in nature forced physicists to work with them, and thus quantum physics was born.

If quantum physics exists, then physicists must realize that photons are responsible for force effects between distant objects. When one object emits photons, another object absorbing these photons should be pushed away from the photon producer. This is what is observed in the universe as universal objects are pushed apart, and the universe expands.

Certainly, we must not forget gravity. Though gravity is a very weak affect, due to a side-effect of objects moving side-by-side, it still plays a big role in the universe. This is because gravitons may influence many strings inside baryons, as baryonic matter does not absorb said gravitons. Thus, a graviton makes many passes among the strings responsible for the mass of baryons. Hence, an object having larger nuclei is more affected by gravity than a smaller object, causing gravity to prevail over the photon's stronger force--especially when many graviton interactions occur for each photon reaction. Hence, we more easily notice the attractive effect of gravitons on objects composed of heavier atoms, and the pushing effect of photons on lighter particles and objects.

The linear momentum of a photon in the collision with the electron causes the electron to move. Besides the small distance required to move into a higher orbit, the electron can even be kicked out of the atom. This is the photoelectric effect. The production of photoelectrons arises mostly from electrons on the outer shell of an atom. The lightest atom is hydrogen, which has only one proton and one electron. There is quite a strong attraction between the electron and the proton in hydrogen. The photoelectric effect is better realized on electrons that are not so strongly tied to the nucleus, especially in metals.

Some photons can penetrate even deeper into an atom that has many electrons, striking electrons on an inner shell. If the photon can kick an electron from an inner orbital shell, it creates a hole there. An electron from an outer shell fills this hole. Since electrons on inner shell have lower energies than electrons on the outer shell, the fallen electron must emit a new photon. This photon has a small energy equal to the difference in binding energies between the two shells. This proves that photons can overcome the outer shell of an atom and interfere with electrons well inside the atom. Therefore, the pushing effect of photons on electrons also exists in atoms with greater numbers of electrons.

Some incoming photons may not be absorbed at all. This may be seen with photons having a higher linear momentum than is needed to kick out an electron. In this case, the result of this collision is the photoelectron and a new photon. Both have linear momenta. The directions they emerge from the atom are based on the velocities of the photons and electrons entering into the collision. These run in accordance with the Law of Conservation of Momentum; the total momentum of the two objects before the collision is equal to the total momentum of the two objects after collision. This process is called Compton scattering, or the Compton effect.

In terms of energy, a photon is created that has a lower energy than the initial photon had. This Compton effect is used in radiography, and thus mostly for medical uses. A high-energy photon is created; this so-called "X-ray" penetrates a tissue atom of a patient. After collision, the remaining lower energy X-ray photon changes direction in relation to the incoming X-ray, and may leave the anatomic part to interact with the image receptor.

This scattering shows where theoretical physicists are today, as well as their occupation. They neglect the old truth, that we already understand the effects pushing apart distant objects. They prefer to work hard to discover some NEW agency responsible for this effect. This is one of many examples of how, today, theoretical physics attempts to omit all that is not explained by their sacred cow called the Standard Model of Particles and Forces.

But let us retain our dignity in relation to knowing about nature by physically observing nature, rather than believing instead in computer modeling.

Since we know that photons can enter atoms, then photons can obviously overcome the outer orbital shells of electrons and collide with nuclei. They may overcome the impact barrier of the hydrogen nucleus, consisting of just one electron, easily. Even easier, they may overcome the compact barrier of a molecule of hydrogen or a helium atom, since the two electrons creating this barrier in helium are close beside it, and thus the surface of this molecule has very little shielding protecting it. Even atoms having two orbital shells can be penetrated by photons, as we've seen from our review of X-rays. This means a photon may hit the proton and transfer all its momentum to the proton's nucleus. Thus, the pushing effect is more considerable when protons absorb photons than when electrons absorb them.

In accordance to real physics (the Compton effect) they err here, since they do not take into consideration the fact that matter in the galaxy can also be pushed away from the stars by photons, and not just be attracted by the galactic center's gravitons. i.e., by the gravitational force. Mainly, photons push away dust and gas, and thus hydrogen first, which removes it from Newtonian gravitational attraction. Besides this, astronomers have catalogued nearly 700 red giant stars that appear to have been ejected from our galaxy. You can see how dangerous it is to allow dogmas to rule science, like the current dogma that claims that gravity is the only force (god) managing the Universe.

The lighter atoms can be sent on far journeys by shining objects. This is a reality in the universe. For the example, some 460 light-years away in the constellation of Centaurus, a thick disk of dust once swirled around a star designated TYC 8241 2652. Then, in less than two years, the disk vanished. It seems likely that disk consisted mostly of hydrogen; photons emitted by the parent star pushed the hydrogen cloud away from the star, diluting and chilling the disk material until it has become undetectable at interstellar distances.

The universe expands; that is an unassailable fact. This means that some celestial bodies are being pushed away from places where many stars exist toward a direction where photons do not strike them as often. Shining objects--stars--are where elements heavier than iron are created. That is the old universe. Then objects travel to new places on the edges of the old universe. As they obtain higher and higher momentum due to absorbing more and more photons, they gain speed, and that is why their speed may accelerate to a point when they will no longer absorb any more photons from the direction from whence they came. Celestial objects are not pushed this way anymore since they have advanced toward the speed of light, c, they may attract each other due to gravitational force. Thus new clouds of light atoms are created, which can then collapse to form new stars in the "new" universe. These new stars begin to shine, and celestial objects composed of light atoms are now pushed away from them, and so on. This accounts for the evolution of the universe.

The photon is the carrier of the electrically negative string-charge due to the creation of cones on spinning strings after landing. Nature teaches us that the negative charge is attracted to the positive charge, but that like charges repel each other. However, the photon can be absorbed by the electron. How can this happen? When we observe the creation of the electron during beta decay, we see the attractive effect of the string vortex in action, pulling in the stem of another vortex. Now we have the flying wave pattern of the string vortex. I propose that string vortexes covering the electron catch the end of the string pattern, pulling it in.

One possibility is that the wave pattern does not have time to become a string vortex again, and so is pulled in and caught. The photon accepts a ride on the electron. Since the vortex also has the ability to kick a caught object out through its edge, our photon is soon kicked out from the electron. Usually, the photon continues on the same trajectory, directly away from the electron. This means the photon is kicked out after some orbits around the atomic nucleus. This should especially be true for transparent materials, where light propagates at a speed slower than c. The reason lies in the absorption of the photon by the electrons, where the photon stays, let's say, for one revolution of the electron and then is emitted back on its previous trajectory before getting caught again, looping around, and continuing. Thus, the lower speed of light in transparent materials is due to light not propagating on its normal straight trajectory when its component photons are absorbed by the electron. The photon always moves at the speed c, but its lower speed in transparent materials is due to its transient loops with electrons in the material.

Photons usually stop when they strike electrons, and therefore we are unable to see through those materials. The impact of the photons must increase the total momentum of object, however, so we may notice an increased temperature in the object. When a warm object cools, the total momentum of the object decreases, and photons are emitted. This is easily observed with radiators (the heating variety). It just confirms the reality that photons have an intrinsic property to "push" the objects they interact with. In our case, they cause increased movements of subatomic particles in the object, resulting in their increased temperature.

When the landed photon has transited the electron to a higher orbit, its wave pattern turns back to the vortex string (strings). Its electric potential is in effect again and so it is added to the electron. The added electric potential attracts the electron more to the nucleus. What causes the electron to transit back to lower-lying level of the orbit. When this happens, however, this orbit needs a lower momentum, and that is why the electron soon emits the photon. Hence, absorptions of the photons are mostly reverse phenomena, soon after absorption comes emission - emission/absorption spectra.

Continue to "Looped Strings"

or to read about Relativity vs. Reality go to the book.

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